In PHP, "
**" represents the exponentiation operator, which returns the result of raising the first operand to the power of the second operand.
For example, the mathematical expression
2 ^ 5 (i.e. two raised to the power of five) can be expressed using the exponentiation operator in the following way:
var_dump(2 ** 5); // 32
In this case,
2 is the base and
5 is the exponent.
This is the same as using the
var_dump(pow(2, 5)); // 32
Using either, the exponential operator (
**) or the
pow() function, is merely a shorter form of multiplying the base number as many times to itself as denoted by the exponent. For example, consider the following, which is equivalent to the examples above:
var_dump(2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2); // 32
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