How to Negate a Number in Python?

Converting positive number to negative and vice versa in Python

In Python, you can negate a number (i.e. convert a positive number to negative, and a negative to positive) in the following ways:

Using Unary Minus Operator

You may negate a number using the unary minus operator (-) like so:

-n

This would convert a positive number to a negative number, and a negative number to a positive number. For example, you can use this in the following way:

def negate(num):
    return -num

print(negate(1234)) # -1234
print(negate(-1234)) # 1234

0 is a special case, which would always return 0 when negated:

# ...
print(negate(0)) # 0
print(negate(-0)) # 0

Using Arithmetic Operators

You may convert a positive number to negative or vice versa by simply multiplying it by -1:

n * -1

It would also work if you divide the number by -1 (but you will have to convert the result to int as it would return a float):

int(n / -1)

Alternatively, you may subtract the number from 0:

0 - n

You could use any of these to convert a positive number to a negative number and vice versa, for example, like so:

def negate(num):
    return num * -1

print(negate(1234)) # -1234
print(negate(-1234)) # 1234
def negate(num):
    return int(num / -1)

print(negate(1234)) # -1234
print(negate(-1234)) # 1234
def negate(num):
    return 0 - num

print(negate(1234)) # -1234
print(negate(-1234)) # 1234

In any case, 0 would always return 0 when negated:

# ...
print(negate(0)) # 0
print(negate(-0)) # 0

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